Saturday, February 22, 2020
Strategic management of Adam Aircraft - Essay Example In this paper, a SWOT analysis and the Five Porter Forces of Adam Aircraft will be discussed as well as the strategic management used by the company in order to improve on its performance. The SWOT analysis will be carried on the company to determine the reasons behind its success, failures and to determine the management strategies used for the company to venture into the already competitive market. For example, the market had been quite desperate for products like plane performing flawlessly overhead and so this paper will analyze whether Adam Aircraft was able to succeed from where other companies had failed. Introduction This paper is about the strategic management of Adam Aircraft. Adam Aircraft manufactures designs and eventually intends on selling aircrafts in the aerospace/aviation industry. Rick Adam is the successful entrepreneur behind this company and has identified a need in the market which made him venture into this industry. He has worked with computer engineers and pilots and this gave an insight of knowing the customer or the market needs. In this case, Rick Adam describes himself as a raging incrementalist who has chosen to taken a step by step in innovations. Marketing of airplanes has high barriers to entry and highly requires enormous amounts of capital due to the strict and very expensive policies which are dictated by the relevant authorities. Rick acknowledged all the pitfalls of being an airplane manufacture in the industry and these include building, designing, financing and long-term certification process. Rick also analyses the reasons as to why many companies have failed in trying to enter the market and why other companies succeed. From these market research processes, Rick was able to discover new ways in which he would approach the aerospace industry hence the success of Adam Aircraft. Adam Aircraft is a perfect example of a company in the aerospace/aviation industry which has defied all odds in the industry by escaping hurdles like competition from key players and technology capital to a point of success where it created A700 and A500. 2. SWOT analysis Strengths The ability to have great ideas on how to launch a new aircraft ahead of it competitors is a strength to Adam Aircraft The ten member executive team of Adam Aircraft are accomplished pilots and experts and with many years experience in the aviation industry. These accomplished pilots and experts have continued to build a ton of airplanes for the company The company understood that the only way to finance its new project budget is to cut on the development costs by at least 5% Adam Aircraft understood that the development of a new airplane project needs brilliant engineering and the development of a culture which is unheard in the aviation industry The company has had a large customer base ever since it flew its A500 The company plans on introducing A700 which will lead to a reduction in the cost per seat to a level where the average business traveler could afford the service. Rick is a specialist in computer science and IT this made him acquire
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Management and Research - Essay Example 3. Innovation in business is a route that represents a high risk for any business endeavor. A higher risk implies the possibility of failure is more likely than normal. Many times the technological concept is solid, but not economically viable. Another deterrent is when a firm runs out of funds to continue developing a concept or the market does not accept a new product despite its technological superiority. 1. An individual can achieve an internal state of mind that allows for creativity since the person controls all dimensions to take the idea and convert into innovation that creates income or contributes a valuable service to society. Universities use innovation as a general guideline to foster R&D. Companies focus on innovation to create value. Governmental organizations use innovation to spark economic activity. Non-profit organizations value innovation since it opens new doors that lead to solutions to solve social, environmental, and other community concerns. \ 4. The relationship between company creativity as a function of the creativity of the individual associated with the firm is a hypothesis that a mathematical model could test to determine the correlation between the independent and dependent variable. In a business model with multiple variables such as structures, routines, incentives, etc. a multivariable regression model can accomplish the desired objective. A company that uses employee creativity to as part of its operating activities is IBM with its wide array of personalized high tech business solutions. 5. Collaborative research agreements allow for technological transfers among participants in the research alliance. Different geographical points across earth have certain characteristics that are unique to the region and may be of interest for foreign investigators, thus collaborative research agreements are imperative to foster
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Social Advantages of EU Memebership Introduction The following working paper presents the Social assistance and social advantages in the European Union and third country nationals (with special attention for Turkish persons). It has been organized in seven main chapters which are summarized briefly in the following paragraphs. In order to have a view of what makes the legal basis for TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in European Union, this paper tries to describe the most important International and European legal instruments.Ã These instruments set minimum standards relating to the protection of migrants, their families and refugees as well as for international co-operation on migration. International law protect migrant according to fundamental principles like; equality of treatment between regular migrant workers and nationals in the realm of employment and occupation; universal human rights apply to all human beings, including all migrants, regardless of status. International instruments provide normative standards for all national legislation and policy on migration. The main international human rights Conventions and Covenants apply to all human beings, including migrants and refugees. The Council of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s migration instruments cover general human rights and more specific agreements relating to migrants and migrant workers. The Community has power to enter into agreements with third countries which agreements may either be limited to matters within the exclusive competence of the Community or cover a wider mix of issues including areas of shared competence between the Member States and the Community.Ã Agreement with third countries in this working paper are mentioned not because they provide direct social rights (referring to the Turkey agreement) to TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s but because the European Court of Justice often make reference to them conferring direct effectÃ for the equal treatment of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s. Under the EU law, where a right deriving from an agreement is found to be directly enforceable by the ECJ (direct effect), it is part of the acquis communautaire and must be applied by the Communitys national courts. The jurisprudence of the ECJ clarify the treatment of third country nationals having an advantageous legal status close to nationals of Members States. Moreover, it has been tried to provide a general view of social advantages for TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s in European Union. It is well known that social advantages and social rights forÃ TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s depend mainly on their legal status. Different categories of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s are treated differently in respect of social rights within the Union.Ã Irregular immigrants and persons illegally residing in a country are mentioned in this paper but are not treated deeply considering that they have very restricted rights in respect of social rights. Regular immigrants have a more favorable situation and enjoy rights and obligations comparable to those of citizens of the European Union. A description of different directives and regulations has been made in order to explain what social rights and advantages have the category of third country nationals within the European Union. Reference to the definition of social advantages according to ECJ case laws has been made. In the following chapter, Social assistance in the European Union, it has been tried to explain several definitions that exist for social assistance, Social Regimes and Social Protection Delivery Systems, the role of social assistance, its personal scope, level and duration of social assistance benefits and conditioning of social assistance. The general situation of social assistance is further analyzed in four European countries; Germany, Austria, France and Belgium. European Union Countries provide social assistance for persons in need in different ways. They are guided almost from the same principles but apply different provisions and eligibility criteria because access to social assistance is governed according to national rules. This section aims to present an analysis of how social assistance systems are administered in Germany, Austria, France and Belgium, their legal and administrative structures and rules of eligibility, relative rules which determine the benefits etc. In general, immigrants with permanent residence status have access to social security benefits on the same basis as nationals in all Member States. There are greater differences in regulations relating to social assistance, where the great majority of the States provide access to long-resident third-country nationals on the same basis as for nationals. Regulations and practices regarding the provisions available for asylum seekers also differ. Contribution-based benefits are generally accessible on the same basis as they are for nationals.Ã However, there are often limitations linked to minimum contributions or waiting periods. Conditions of access to social assistance can have an important impact on the social inclusion of immigrants. Considering the above, in the chapter 6 of this working paper Ã¢â¬Å"Social assistance for third country nationals in four European union countriesÃ¢â¬ , it has been tried to provide a view of how TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s are treated in Germany, Austria, Franc e and Belgium as regarded to social assistance. The selection of these countries has been made according to the differences they have in providing social assistance to third country nationals. France and Germany have more liberal social assistance system concerning third country nationals than Belgium and Austria. In the first two countries social assistance is provided for all persons without any condition relating to period of residence in the national territory, meanwhile in Belgium and Austria residence condition is mandatory for being eligible to social assistance.Ã In the last chapter of this paper has been described different social rights, which are found in different directives and regulations for Turkish persons in European Union.Ã Even though, it is obvious that the arrangements for Turkish migrants under the association instruments provide less legal protection compared nationals of Member States, they have a more favorable social situation than other third country nationals. The methodology used is that of qualitative content analyses of International and European primary and secondary legal instruments as well as a description of the situation of social assistance in four EuropeanÃ Union Countries. 1.Ã Legal Instruments For Social Security of TCN In European Union International and European legal instruments set minimum standards relating to the protection of migrants, their families and refugees as well as for international co-operation on migration. Although States have their sovereign rights over migration policies in their countries, international law protect migrant according to fundamental principles like; equality of treatment between regular migrant workers and nationals in the realm of employment and occupation; universal human rights apply to all human beings, including all migrants, regardless of status. International Legal InstrumentsÃ International instruments provide normative standards for all national legislation and policy on migration. The main international human rights Conventions and Covenants apply to all human beings, including migrants and refugees. Nonetheless, specific sets of instruments have been elaborated to address the particular situations of, respectively, refugees and asylum seekers, migrant workers, and trafficking and smuggling of human beings. Certain aspects of other international treaties also apply to migration, notably International Labor Standards, international consular law and certain international trade agreements. International Human Rights Conventions provide a broad and ample normative framework for the protection of migrants. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 laid out a comprehensive set of universal human rights principles. It is not legally binding, but it has provided the foundation for the recognition of social secuÃ rity rights in treaties subsequently adopted. Art. 22 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantee the right to social security. Art. 25 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right of everyone to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age and other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his or her control. Specific conventions subsequently explicitly extended the application of universal rights to victims of racial discrimination, women, children, and migrants: Convention for the Elimination of Racism and Racial Discrimination (CERD), Convention Against Torture (CAT), Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families(CMR).These instruments have been characterized as fundamental human rights instruments that define basic, universal human rights and ensure their explicit extension to vulnerable groups world-wide. The Convention on the Status of Refugees 1951 provides essential standards regarding recognition, protection of and assistance to refugees and asylum seekers. The Convention defines who is a refugee, sets out rights of individuals granted asylum, delineates the responsibility of States to non-refoulement and provides other provisions such as regarding refugee travel documents. ILO Convention No. 102 on Social Security (Minimum Standards) recognizes the following nine speÃ cific branches of social security: medical care, sickness benefits, unemployment benefits, oldÃ age benefits, unemployment injury benefits, family benefits, maternity benefits, invalidity benefits and survivorsÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits.Ã Minimum reÃ quirements are stipulated as to the coverage of the population, the content and level of benefits, the protection of the rights of conÃ tributors and beneficiaries and matters of administration. Other relevant Conventions of ILO are: Maternity Protection ConvenÃ tion (Revised), 1952 (No. 103); Equality of Treatment Social SeÃ curity) Convention, 1962 (No. 118) (concerning equality of treatment of nationals and non-naÃ tionals); Maintenance of Social SecuÃ rity Rights Convention, 1982 (No. 157). International Labor Standards to policy and practice regarding employment dimensions of migration have repeatedly underscored the applicability to all migrant workers of International Labor Standards covering conditions at work, occupational safety and health, maximum hours of work, minimum remuneration, non-discrimination, freedom of association, collective bargaining, and maternity leave, among others. European Legal Instruments The Council of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s migration instruments cover general human rights and more specific agreements relating to migrants and migrant workers. The European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) applies clearly to everyone within the jurisdiction of a state party, which means that all migrants in Council of Europe member states are covered by its provisions irrespective of their country of origin. The importance of this Convention is because, unlike other Council of Europe instruments, its personal scope is not limited to nationals of other states parties. The ECHR primarily safeguards civil and political rights and that the legal status of migrant workers. This convention is strongly connected to the protection of their economic and social rights but its role in this field is limited. Nevertheless, the discriminatory application of economic and social rights in respect of migrants may well lead to a violation of the ECHR.Ã While there are no specific provisions on migrant workers in the ECHR, migrants have obtained remedies from the European Court of Human Rights under its cas e law in protection of their right to respect for family life and the non-discrimination principle (Arts. 8 and 14 respectively). The European Social Charter (1961) and its Additional Protocol (1988), as well as the Revised European Social Charter (Council of Europe, 1996) which entered into force in July 1999, in contrast to the ECHR, has a limited personal scope because it only applies to foreigners who are nationals of other contracting parties.Ã The Charter is the only treaty which guarantees the right to social and medical assistance. The dichotomy between social security and social assistance is highly controversial, it appears in the Charter, which approaches the two areas in two separate Articles (Article 12 and Article 13) carrying different undertakings. Article 12(4), is concerned with ensuring equal treatment between the nationals of contracting parties in respect of social security rights by the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements (or by other means) and Article 13(4), is concerned with the treatment of foreigners lawfully within the territory of contracting parties in respect of social and medical assistance in accordance with the obligations of contracting parties under the European Convention on Social and Medical Assistance. It considers as social assistance, benefits for which individual need is the main criterion for eligibility, without any requirement of affiliation to a social security scheme aimed to cover a particular risk, or any requirement of professional activity or payment of contributions. European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant Workers (Council of Europe, 1977) includes provisions relating to the main aspects of the legal status of migrant workers coming from Contracting parties, and especially to residence and work permits, medical examinations and vocational tests, recruitment, housing, family reunion, travel, conditions of work, transfer of savings, expiry of the contract of employment, dismissal and re-employment, social and medical assistance, social security, and preparation for return to the country of origin. European Convention on Social and Medical Assistance ensure that nationals of contracting parties lawfully present in the territory of another contracting party, and who are without sufficient resources, are entitled to social and medical assistance on the same basis as nationals (Article 1) . As of 15 September 2002, this convention was in force in seventeen member states. The convention prohibits a contracting party from repatriating nationals from other contracting parties who are lawfully resident in its territory on the sole ground that they are in need of assistance (Article 6.a), although it may still do so if the following three conditions in Article 7.a are satisfied: the person concerned has not been continuously resident in the territory of that Contracting Party for at least five years if he entered it before attaining the age of 55 years, or for at least ten years if he entered it after attaining that age, he is in a fit state of health to be transported, and has no close ties in the territory in which he is resident. The importance of this convention is that both the provisions concerning social and medical assistance in the European Social Charter (Article 13(4)) and the European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant Workers (Article 19) refer specifically to the obligations of contracting parties under the convention. Articles 13(1)-(2) of the Charter require contracting parties to ensure that persons without adequate resources are provided with adequate assistance and health care and that they do not suffer from the diminution of their political and social rights because they receive such assistance. Article 13(3) provides that everyone should be able to benefit from public or private services to prevent, remove or alleviate personal or family want. These rights also apply to nationals of contracting parties who work regularly or reside lawfully within the territory of another contracting party on the same basis as nationals. Article 13(4) of the Charter extends the scope of these provisio ns by stipulating that they are to be applied by contracting parties on an equal basis to the nationals of other contracting parties lawfully within their territories in accordance with their obligations under the European Convention on Social and Medical Assistance. Treaty Establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) provides for freedom of movement for workers from EU member states, although transitional arrangements are in place limiting this freedom for nationals from certain new member states. The Treaty prohibits any discrimination based on nationality between these workers as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment, including social security (Arts. 12 and 39). The EC Treaty also invites the EU Council of Ministers to take measures necessary to ensure equality of treatment and to combat discrimination based on, inter alias, race, ethnic origin, religion or belief, and sexual orientation. The Council is also empowered to take measures in the field of asylum, immigration and safeguarding of the rights of nationals of third countries, although the measures adopted to date on legal migration have afforded third-country nationals lesser rights than those granted EU citizens. European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, adopted in 2000, sets out in a single text, for the first time in EU history, the whole range of civil, political, economic and social rights of EU citizens and all persons resident in the European Union. Council Directive 2003/109/Ec f 25 November 2003 on 3rd country nationals who are long term residents respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognized in particular by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. It promotes the integration of third-country nationals who are long-term residents in the Member States as a key element in promoting economic and social cohesion. This directive specifies that long-term residents should enjoy equality of treatment with citizens of the Member State in a wide range of economic and social matters.Ã With regard to social assistance, the possibility of limiting the benefits for long-term residents to core benefits is to be understood in the sense that this notion covers at least minimum income support, assistance in case of illness, pregnancy, parental assistance and long-term care. The modalities for grantin g such benefits should be determined by national law. A broader view of directive 109 provisions is presented in the chapter with social advantages for TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s in EU. Council Recommendation 92/441/EEC of 24 June 1992 on common criteria concerning sufficient resources and social assistance in social protection systems. This Recommendation, adopted in June 1992 at the Lisbon European Council, recognizes the basic right of a person to guaranteed sufficient resources and social assistance, as part of a comprehensive and consistent drive to combat social exclusion, and to adapt their social protection systems as necessary. It is open to all individuals resident in the Member State in accordance with national and Community provisions that do not have access to sufficient resources individually or within the household in which they live. Council Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 of 14 June 1971 on the application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families moving within the Community (5), provide Third-country nationals with refugee status equal social security rights with EU nationals. Council Regulation (EC) No 859/2003 extends the provisions of Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 and Regulation (EEC) No 574/72 to nationals of third countries who are not already covered by those provisions solely on the ground of their nationality. It ensure fair treatment of third country nationals legally residing in the territory of Member States, granting them rights and obligations comparable to those of EU citizens. In this regulation is enhanced social and cultural life and the legal status of TCN is approximated to that of Member States nationals. A high level of social protection is promoted and a set of uniform rights as near as possible to those enjoyed by EU citizens is granted to TCN. European Community agreements with third countries The Community has power to enter into agreements with third countries which agreements may either be limited to matters within the exclusive competence of the Community or cover a wider mix of issues including areas of shared competence between the Member States and the Community.Ã Turkey Agreement: The EEC-Turkey Association Agreement, implemented by Association Council Decisions 2/76, 1/80 and 3/80,4 provides for certain rights for Turkish nationals and their family members employed and resident in EU member states. Turkish workers resident in EU member states are also entitled to the same protection from expulsion as EU nationals employed in other member states. With regard to social security rights, the European Court of Justice has also held that Article 3(1) of Decision 3/80, which affords Turkish workers and their family memberÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment equal to that of nationals of member states, confers direct effect. Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia: The agreements with the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia confer equal treatment on Maghreb nationals employed and resident in EU member states as regards their working conditions or remuneration and social security. These non-discrimination provisions have been found by the European Court of Justice as containing sufficiently clear and precise obligations to confer direct effect in EU countries of employment. Equal treatment in social security extends to family members, who have been defined broadly by the ECJ to include the parents of the worker and his or her spouse residing in the host member state. In the field of social security, these agreements are generally based on the following principles: Equal treatment with nationals of the Member States in which they are employed, of Moroccan workers and members of their families living with them, for all branches of social security covered by Regulation 1408/71. Aggregation of periods of insurance, employment or residence completed in the Member States for each of the above social security branches, with the exception of unemployment benefits, industrial accident or occupational disease benefits, and death grants; Transfer of family benefits to other Community countries; Transfer to Morocco of old-age, survivorsÃ¢â¬â¢ and invalidity benefits, and industrial accident or occupational disease benefits; Application of these principles by Morocco to Community workers, with the exception of aggregation. Europe Agreements: The Community can enter into Europe Agreements with third countries which may also be candidates for accession to the EU. These agreements include a provision guaranteeing equal treatment of migrant workers and nationals as regards working conditions, remuneration or dismissal. In contrast to the agreements with the Maghreb countries, however, equality of treatment in the Europe Agreements in respect of social security is dependent on the adoption of provisions for the co-ordination of social security schemes by the Association Council established under each agreement. The Ruling of the European Court of Justice Under the EU law, the rights of non-EU nationals (including Turkish nationals) to entry, residence, work, social security benefits, education and other social and tax advantages are based either on their relationship with EU nationals or firms (derivative rights) or on their status as a national of a country with which the Community has concluded an international agreement (direct rights). The EU law differs from other instruments of international law in that decisions, agreements and acts of the institutions of the Community are directly applicable in the Member States. Of course, not all provisions of directly applicable international law are capable of direct effect. When a provision of EU law is directly effective, domestic courts are under an obligation not only to apply it, but to do so in priority over any conflicting provisions of national law according to the principle of primacy of EU law. Therefore, EU law has priority over national laws in the areas in which they apply. Under the EU law, where a right deriving from an agreement is found to be directly enforceable by the ECJ (direct effect), it is part of the acquis communautaire and must be applied by the Communitys national courts. Furthermore, if it appears to a national court that a national provision does not comply with community law, the court is under an obligation to apply Community law and if necessary grant interim relief while the opinion of the ECJ is being asked. Despite the jurisprudence of the ECJ clarifying the treatment of third country nationals having an advantageous legal status close to nationals of Members States, a comprehensive and exclusive Community competence in this area still remains to be unresolved. A dichotomy was developed over the years by the Member States, by explicitly recognizing, on the one hand, the requirement of much closer consultation and co-operation at Community level in the implementation of national migration policies vis-ÃÆ'Ã -vis third countries. On the other hand, Member States always underlined that matters relating to the access, residence and employment of migrant workers from third countries fall under the jurisdiction of the governments of the Member States and nothing shall stop them to take measures to control immigration form third countries. 2.Ã TCN In European Union Definition of TCN According to Article 17(1) of the TreatyÃ¢â¬  Ã¢â¬Ëthird country national (TCN) is Ã¢â¬Å"any person who is not a citizen of the Union within the meaning of this definition includes a number of categories of persons: Refugees, asylum seekers, migrant workers, those who enter through family reunion, and legally resident and undocumented immigrants. It also includes stateless persons, in accordance with the definition in the Constitutional Treaty. Categories of TCN Third country nationals are contrary to EU-nationals. Their situation differs not only from European Union Nationals but also between the different categories of third country nationals. Referring to the definition of TCN the following categories can be distinguished: Asylum Seeker: is someone who makes a claim for asylum in a country other than their own. The rights of asylum seekers are more restricted than the rights of refugees in relation to movement (where they can travel to), employment, health care and social security. Illegal Immigrant: is someone who has moved from one state to another without any legal claim, such as a visa or a claim for asylum. Migrant Unlike refugees, migrants do not fear persecution from their home state. Instead, they make a conscious decision to move and have the freedom to return to their state of origin if they wish. Refugee: in the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees a refugee is defined as someone who: owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. Stateless Person: is someone who does not belong as a citizen to any state. A stateless person may also be a refugee but this is not always the case. For example, a person may leave their home state without persecution. Some people are also born into statelessness due to their parents either being stateless themselves, or unable to register the birth of their child. According to the legal base which covers TCN the following categories can be distinguished: Third country Nationals from EFTA states. They are covered by regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 and their situation is similar to EU-nationals. Third country Nationals who are family members of EU nationals, partly covered by Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71. Third country Nationals covered by agreements concluded between the community and third countries. Third country Nationals covered by multilateral agreements such as agreements of the Council of Europe, ILO etc. Third country Nationals covered by bilateral agreements. Third country Nationals who are not covered by any agreement. Legal Status of TCN According to their legal status, immigrants in European countries can be grouped into four different categories: The immediate citizenship model. The receiving state recognizes the immigrants as citizens immediately on their arrival. The quasi-citizenship model, immigrants have a similar status but not completely identical to the citizenship model. Alien resident have the same rights as the citizens of the host state in almost all fields of social life. Privileged treatment for special categories of immigrants, rights to enter or stay in the country are granted to certain special categories of aliens. Their residence rights are protected. Those aliens have limited possibilities for expulsion or deportation. They have special rights or same treatment as citizens in several areas. Denizen status, or semi-citizen status, aliens receive almost full residence rights (expulsion being limited to exceptional cases). Equal treatment with citizens is granted in most areas of public life (access to all jobs, equal rights to housing, education and social security) and sometimes even in political life. The exact content of the rights included in each model may differ slightly from country to country. The main differences in Social and political rights granted to immigrants are between the first model and the other three models. Full set of social and political rights are granted only to immigrants with citizenship of the country of residence. As for the other three models immigrants social and political rights are limited to the right to participate in elections on the local or the regional level and the access to certain jobs in the public service. 3.Ã Social Advantages of Third Country Nationals In European Union It is not easy to define social advantages of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s in European Union. Social advantages and social rights of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s depend on their legal status. Different categories of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoy different social rights within the Union.Ã Illegal immigrants, for example, cannot claim any rights and are not eligible for any welfare schemes because of their impossibility of presenting any official documents (identification, residence or work permit, etc.) regarding their status. Regular immigrants have a more favorable situation and enjoy rights and obligations comparable to those of citizens of the European Union. According to their status, their social rights are included within different directives and regulations. The European Council, in its special meeting in Tampere on 15 and 16 October 1999, acknowledged the need for harmonization of national legislation on the conditions for admission and residence of TCNÃ¢â¬â¢s. In this context, it has in particular stated that the European Union should ensure fair treatment of third country nationals residing lawfully on the territory of the Member States and that a more vigorous integration policy should aim at granting them rights and obligations comparable to those of citizens of the European Union. Council Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 has a restricted personal scope of application and provides equal social security rights with EU nationals only to third-country nationals with refugee status.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Learning Patience and Responsibility at Hell's Pizza Even the job from hell can teach you patience and responsibility. When you hear the name Peter Piper Pizza, you may think a fun family restaurant. When I hear Peter Piper Pizza I get chills down my spine. Having worked there for about two years, I started to get annoyed over every little thing that was a part of my job. I had the worst position that they had, Game Technician. When I first applied for the job, the game guy was going to be the easiest job that I could find. Little did I know that this position taught me the more about being patient and responsible than any other experience I have had. It was mid sophomore year of high school when I started the job hunt. I applied to many places, grocery stores, restaurants, and even the movie theaters. No reply from any of them. It was about a month and a half when Bob from Peter Piper Pizza called me up looking for new employees. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey this is Bob from Peter Piper Pizza, is this BrandonÃ¢â¬ Bob asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes it isÃ¢â¬ I replied. Ã¢â¬Å"How would you like to come in and work for us at Peter Piper PizzaÃ¢â¬ asked Bob? Ã¢â¬Å"I would love to,Ã¢â¬ as I smiled with a huge grin on my face. Ã¢â¬Å"Well ok I will see you tomorrow for your interviewÃ¢â¬ Bob stated. Ã¢â¬Å"Ok see you thereÃ¢â¬ I said. I was so excited that I was finally going to have a job. I was a little nervous about the job interview, but that was a piece of cake. The interview lasted only about five minutes. An easy question here and an easy one there, and before I knew it I was the new game technician at Peter Piper Pizza. I was so happy once the interview was over; I was telling everyone that I had just got a job. Right after the interview me any my mom went and got me my food handlers card. ... ...Brandon there are customers at the prize counterÃ¢â¬ Bob stated. I would deal with this working environment every day. With so much responsibility and work to complete, my manager would sometimes think that it was fine if I would work the oven on my shift. So now I have to hand out all of the prizes, fix any broken game and ones that were acting up, hand out lost tokens to customers, get the pizza out of the oven to cut it and call it over the intercom to the customers. Working this job for nearly two years, it made me significantly more responsible and taught me many things about being patient. Having to deal with many different things at once, I learned how to balance things and take duties one step at a time and not get overwhelmed. This job was like taking a two year class on how to be responsible and be patient when difficulties are stacking up against you.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Quantitative Analysis Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3 Laboratory Experiment 2 February 19, 2013 Abstract: In the Gravimetric determination is the measurement of mass in two different forms precipitation and volatilization. In our experiment we will be using the precipitation form which isolates an ion in a solution by a precipitation reaction, filtering, purifying by wash method, conversion to product of known composition, and final weigh of the product comparing the mass difference of theorictal and actual. This method identified the weight percent of iron in an unknown sample.Three samples are taken to limit percent error. In the results of the three samples 1 had a percent of 10. 764 Fe (III), sample 2 had a percent of 11. 725 Fe (III), and sample 3 with a percent of 12. 216 Fe (III). The average sample percent was 11. 568 compared to given amount percent of 12. 90. In theory with a loss of 1. 332 this experiment was overall successful. Introduction: In this lab the pur pose was to use the gravimetric determination procedure to identify the weight percent of iron in an unknown sample. Three samples were collected and analyzed.Iron can be analyzed by precipitating the hydrated iron oxide from a basic solution. After the basic solution is hydrated the process is then followed by complete dehydration to give solid iron oxide. Methods and Materials: Needed in the experiment was; * Crucibles, Metal rings, Wire triangles, Burners, Funnels, Filter Paper, Beakers, Glass rod, Diluted ammonium hydroxide solution, Nitric acid solution, Silver nitrate solution, NH4NO3 solution, Distilled water. Below are some methods used in experiment. fig. 1 fig. 2 Experimental Procedure: This experiment was a multiple session lab.Obtain three crucibles and desiccator. Bring the three porcelain crucibles and caps to constant mass by heating to redness for 15 minutes over a burner, use fig. 1 for method reference. Place the heated crucibles in the desiccator to cool for appro ximately 30 minutes and weigh. This was left overnight and completed the second trial in the next session with successive weighing agreed within 0. 30mg. (Keep constant numbering with crucibles throughout experiment) We measured out 1. 5g of three samples of the unknown that was given to us. Each sample was dissolved in 10 mL of 3M HCl (with heating necessary). mL of 6 M HNO3 was obtained to filtrate, and boil for a few minutes to ensure that all iron is oxidized to Fe (III). The samples was diluted to 200mL with distilled water and add 3 M ammonia with constant stirring until the solution was basic (as determined with pH indicator paper). After solution becomes basic, digest the precipitate by boiling for 5 minutes and allow the precipitate to settle. We then decanted the supernatant liquid through coarse, ash less filter paper (Whatman 41 or Schleicher and Schuell Black Ribbon, as in fig. 2 -18 and 2 -19 in textbook. ). Keep liquid lower than 1 cm from the top of the funnel.Our pr ecipitate was first washed repeatedly with hot ammonium hydroxide solution, by miscommunication. Then washed with the corrected heated ammonium nitrate and left it to drain overnight until next session. We continued to wash supernatant until little or no Cl- is detected in filtered supernatant. Detect the Cl- by acidifying a few milliliters of filtrate with 1 mL of dilute HNO3 and adding a few drops of 0. 1 M AgNO3. If precipitate is observed, Cl- is present. After identifying that there was not any Cl- present we allowed the filter to drain overnight covered with ventilation.Carefully, the paper was lifted out of the funnel, folded (fig. 2), and transferred all dried substance to crucible and any substance that is not completely dry place into beaker and into the heater for half an hour. Those placed in beaker was then placed into the crucibles that were brought to constant mass. With the paper and substance in the crucible it was placed over a small flame with the lid off to start to char the filter paper. The flame temperature was then increased keeping the lid handy to smother the crucible of the paper flames.After the paper seems visibly charred ignite the product for full 15 minutes with full heat of the burner directed at the base of the crucible where oxidized iron is located. When the crucibles have briefly cooled in the air, we then placed them in the desiccator for 30 minutes. After the 30 minutes of cooling in the desiccator weigh the crucible and the lid, reignite, and bring to constant mass with the repeated heating within a mass of 0. 3 mg. We are now complete with the experiment. Calculate the weight percent of iron in each sample, the average, the standard deviation, and the relative standard deviation for your data.Results: Crucible 1: 0. 231 g Fe2O3 ? 1 mol Fe2O3159. 487g ? 2 mol FeOOH1 mol Fe2O3? 55. 845 g1 mol = 0. 162g Fe0. 162 g1. 505 g? 100=10. 764% Crucible 2: 0. 252 g Fe2O3 ? 1 mol Fe2O3159. 487g ? 2 mol FeOOH1 mol Fe2O3? 55. 845 g1 m ol = 0. 176g Fe0. 176 g1. 501 g? 100=11. 725% Crucible 3: 0. 268 g Fe2O3 ? 1 mol Fe2O3159. 487g ? 2 mol FeOOH1 mol Fe2O3? 55. 845 g1 mol = 0. 183g Fe0. 183 g1. 502 g? 100=12. 216% *Refer to appendix for sample mass table and calculation equations | Crucible 1| Crucible 2| Crucible 3| Weight percent| 10. 764 %| 11. 725 %| 12. 216%|Average| 0. 250 g| Standard Deviation| 0. 019| Relative Deviation| 0. 015| Discussion: Since the obtained and expected results are not 100 percent match we can conclude that during the experiment we encountered a loss of product, with an average percent of 11. 57 and an obtained of 12. 90 percent. In the experiment the precipitate was washed repeatedly with given solution to filter out any Cl- at this time we notice that some of the precipitate had gone through the filter through the sides from solution being held to high causing an overflow on the sides of the filter.This was notice by the orange tint in the beaker of the filtered solution. In the experime nt scales were also changed due to overuse. That could cause some flux in the measurement changes by small degree. Another error or issue during the experiment a lids on our crucible broke having to replace it caused a changed in our final weigh being that in the beginning we weighed our crucibles with the lid. Remaining constant in the lab is a must this does cut back on experimental error such as using the same analytical balances and labeling all equipment and crucibles.In the Gravimetric determination is the measurement of mass in two different forms precipitation and volatilization. Some of the underlying principles and theories of gravimetric analysis are law of mass action, reversible reactions, and principle of solubility product and common ion effect. Conclusion: The gravimetric determination procedure determined that we had an average of 11. 568% of Fe in our unknown solution, given the amount of 12. 90% of Fe. We experienced a loss of approximately 1. 332 %. This loss cou ld be included in instrumental and human errors.References: Lewis, D. 2013. Quantitative Analysis Lab Journal. Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3. Vol. 1: Pages 4 Ã¢â¬â 5. Franklin, J. 2013. Quantitative Analysis Lab Journal. Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3. Vol. 1: Pages 7 Ã¢â¬â 11. Bb Learn. 2013. Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Gravimetric Determination of Iron Lab Handout. Harris, Daniel C. 8th edition. Quantitative Chemical Analysis Textbook. Appendix: Calculation equations: Mean : Mean = Sum of X values / N(Number of values) Standard Deviation: Relative Deviation: 100 ? sxCrucibles| Mass of the Beaker (empty) (g)| Mass of the Beaker & Unknown (g)| Mass of the Unknown Sample (g)| 1| 144. 181 g| 146. 686 g| 1. 505 g| 2| 159. 328 g| 160. 829 g| 1. 501 g| 3| 167. 480 g| 168. 982 g| 1. 502 g| * Above are the measurements of the unknown samples obtained Crucibles| Mass of Crucible (g)| Mass Crucible & final product (g)| Mass of final product (g)| 1| 31. 752 g| 31. 982 g| 0. 231 g| 2| 33. 820 g| 34. 072 g| 0. 252 g| 3| 40. 802 g| 40534 g| 0. 268 g| * Above are the measurements of Iron found in unknown sample
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The Iconography of the Laurel Wreath Historically, wreaths, particular in Ancient Greece, were used to symbolize glory, power and youthfulness. Wreaths, comprised of varying berries and branches, became a representation of a particular polis or an offering to a specific deity. Therefore, throughout ancient Greek art, wreaths are placed on subjects in pottery, paintings and sculpture. The gold wreath, simply titled Wreath, at the Getty Villa, is made up of two wires that fasten in the front with a simple hook and eye. The structure of this gold wreath derives from the form of real leaves worn in religious ceremonies and given as awards in athletic events. This paper seeks to explore the iconography and functions of wreaths in Ancient Greece. By analyzing the composition and content of the particular gold wreath at the Getty Villa, I wish to consider how iconography reveals how the object engaged with viewers and communicated specific messages. The gold wreath, simply titled Wreath, at the Getty Villa, is made up of two wires that fasten in the front with a simple hook and eye. These two wires have thinner stems decorated with laurel leaves and berries that were added by an anonymous goldsmith. The bottom half of the hollow wire showcase the broken ends of twigs. This detail showcases a naturalistic quality of this wreath. Moreover, the structure of gold wreaths derive from the form of real leaves worn in religious ceremonies and given as awards in athletic events. BecauseShow MoreRelatedFunerary Vases Essay examples1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesit in yet another cloth, and laid it on a bier (funeral bed), which embodied the Greeks association between sleep and death. After the preparation of the body, the deceased persons house would be adorned with wreaths and arrangements of leaves such as marjoram, celery, myrtle, and laurel. Because the dead were believed to exist in the underworld in the form in which they exited the world of the living, proper and careful pre paration of the body was essential. In fact, failure to prepare and bury
Thursday, December 26, 2019
In the early 1800s, the impoverished and rapidly-growing rural population of Ireland had become almost totally dependent on one crop. Only the potato could produce enough food to sustain families farming the tiny plots of land the Irish peasants had been forced onto by British landlords. The lowly potato was an agricultural marvel, but staking the lives of an entire population on it was enormously risky. Sporadic potato crop failures had plagued Ireland in the 1700s and early 1800s. In the mid-1840s, a blight caused by a fungus struck potato plants across all of Ireland. The failure of essentially the entire potato crop for several years led to unprecedented disaster. Both Ireland and America would be changed forever. The Irish Potato Famine The Irish Potato Famine, which in Ireland became known as The Great Hunger, was a turning point in Irish history. It changed Irish society forever, most strikingly by greatly reducing the population. In 1841, Irelands population was more than eight million. It has been estimated that at least one million died of starvation and disease in the late 1840s, and at least another one million immigrated during the famine. Famine hardened resentment toward the British who ruled Ireland. Nationalist movements in Ireland, which had always ended in failure, would now have a powerful new component: sympathetic Irish immigrants living in America. Scientific Causes The botanical cause of the Great Famine was a virulent fungus (Phytophthora infestans), spread by the wind, that first appeared on the leaves of potato plants in September and October of 1845. The diseased plants withered with shocking speed. When the potatoes were dug up for harvest, they were found to be rotting. Poor farmers discovered the potatoes they could normally store and use as provisions for six months had turned inedible. Modern potato farmers spray plants to prevent blight. But in the 1840s, the blight was not well understood, and unfounded theories spread as rumors. Panic set in. The failure of the potato harvest in 1845 was repeated the following year, and again in 1847. Social Causes In the early 1800s, a large part of the Irish population lived as impoverished tenant farmers, generally in debt to British landlords. The need to survive on small plots of rented land created the perilous situation where vast numbers of people depended on the potato crop for survival. Historians have long noted that while Irish peasants were forced to subsist on potatoes, other crops were being grown in Ireland, and food was exported for market in England and elsewhere. Beef cattle raised in Ireland were also exported for English tables. British Government Reaction The response of the British government to the calamity in Ireland has long been a focus of controversy. Government relief efforts were launched, but they were largely ineffective. More modern commentators have noted that economic doctrine in 1840s Britain generally accepted that poor people were bound to suffer and government intervention was not warranted. The issue of English culpability in the catastrophe in Ireland made headlines in the 1990s, during commemorations marking the 150th anniversary of the Great Famine. Britains then-Prime Minister Tony Blair expressed regret over Englands role during commemorations of the 150th anniversary of the famine. The New York Times reported at the time that Mr. Blair stopped short of making a full apology on behalf of his country. Devastation It is impossible to determine precise numbers of the dead from starvation and disease during the Potato Famine. Many victims were buried in mass graves, their names unrecorded. It has been estimated that at least half a million Irish tenants were evicted during the famine years. In some places, particularly in the west of Ireland, entire communities simply ceased to exist. The residents either died, were driven off the land, or chose to find a better life in America. Leaving Ireland Irish immigration to America proceeded at a modest pace in the decades before the Great Famine. It has been estimated that only 5,000 Irish immigrants per year arrived in the United States prior to 1830. The Great Famine increased those numbers astronomically. Documented arrivals during the famine years are well over half a million. It is assumed that many more arrived undocumented, perhaps by landing first in Canada and walking into the United States. By 1850, the population of New York City was said to be 26 percent Irish. An article titled Ireland in America in the New York Times on April 2, 1852, recounted the continuing arrivals: On Sunday last three thousand emigrants arrived at this port. On Monday there were over two thousand. On Tuesday over five thousand arrived. On Wednesday the number was over two thousand. Thus in four days twelve thousand persons were landed for the first time upon American shores. A population greater than that of some of the largest and most flourishing villages of this State was thus added to the City of New York within ninety-six hours. Irish in a New World The flood of Irish into the United States had a profound effect, especially in urban centers where the Irish exerted political influence and got involved in municipal government, most notably in the police and fire departments. In the Civil War, entire regiments were composed of Irish troops, such as those of New Yorks famed Irish Brigade. In 1858, the Irish community in New York City had demonstrated that it was in America to stay. Led by a politically powerful immigrant, Archbishop John Hughes, the Irish began building the largest church in New York City. They called it St. Patricks Cathedral, and it would replace a modest cathedral, also named for Irelands patron saint, in lower Manhattan. Construction was halted during the Civil War, but the enormous cathedral was finally finished in 1878. Thirty years after the Great Famine, the twin spires of St. Patricks dominated the skyline of New York City. And on the docks of lower Manhattan, the Irish kept arriving. Source Ireland in America. The New York TImes, April 2, 1852. Lyall, Sarah. Past as Prologue: Blair Faults Britain in Irish Potato Blight. The New York Times, June 3, 1997.